Biography of Father Serra
Father Junipero Serra was born in November 24, 1713. He was born on the Island of Majorca off of the coast of Spain. He wanted to become a Missionary. It was his dream to become a missionary. He wanted to go to the New World but he was too young. Father Francisco Palou went with him in August of 1749. 19 other Missionaries went too. The ships took 99 days. It was, rough, rocky and difficult. They landed in Vera Cruz and walked 300 Miles to Mexico City. Father Serra spent 9 years working with the Indians. An expedition brought Father Serra to San Diego Bay to build his first Mission. His second Mission was in Monterey Bay. It was called Mission Carmel. He built seven more mission and took the Indians in.
In 1784 Father Serra was old, tired, and sick. He had a difficult time breathing and his leg was diseased and painful. He went to Mission Carmel which was his favorite and wrote letters to the Padres at the 9 Missions. He died on August 28, 1784 at 70 years old.
Building a Mission
Adobe was used to make buildings. A hole was dug in the ground by adobe. Adobe is a stiff dirt mixture. Soil is what it’s made out of. Plaster is important to the Mission. Lime plaster is made from sea shells and stone. Lime shells where headed in kiln. There were fire proof roofs. The floor tiles were called ladrillos. They were made of a stiffer mixture and cooked in kiln.
Livestock is really important to the Mission. Father Serra and Captian Portola brought with them the livestock during an expedition to California in 1769. The first 5 missions were given 18 cattle, 4 pigs, and some chickens.
Cattle was the most important animal at the mission. They had long curved horns and sloping hinds which gave good meat. Cattle was killed a lot for meat, tallow, and hides. The cattle also gave them milk, cheese, and butter. Other animals were really important to the mission. Sheep were used to make wool and meat. Hogs made lard. They used hog and lard for cooking and soap. They ate sausage and ham. They used horses for traveling and riding. Oxen worked hard in fields. They also had chickens that made eggs and meat. The herds increased and the Indians became cowboys. They moved the animals to a rancho miles away. They branded the animals at the rancho. There was good space and water. That was the beginning of California’s livestock industry.
Vegetable gardens were in every Mission. They prepared the land the same way. Women, men, and children weeded the garden and hoed the garden. Girls and boys waved sticks and threw stones. Insects and animals build fences.
An Indians Life at the Mission
The church bells rang then I had to wake up and go say prayers. The second bell rang that called use to breakfast. They had hot corn mush. The third bell rang and called us to our daily jobs. Women stayed inside. They did weaving, sewing, and cooking. The men were outside plowing, planting, and weeding. They ate atole and add vegetables and chunks of meat. They wrapped it in tortilla. After lunch they would have a siesta and then they would nap. Next they would find a shady place to eat. Grape vines under the tree and after they would go to bed. They would go back to work and a young guy would bring them some cool water. The meals are the same as breakfast. The last bell rings, time to pray. After praying, talking, games, and singing they would sleep again.
Mission Santa Barbara Report
Mission Santa Barbara was founded by Fermin Lasven on December 4th 1786, the feast day of Santa Barbara, as the 10th mission. This mission is between the Pacific Ocean and the Santa Ynez Mountains. Santa Barbara is the only mission to be under the leadership of the Franciscan Friars since the beginning.
Mission Santa Barbara was known to have 2 bell towers. They...
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